Innovative Grinding Technologies – Fritz Studer Award 2020
Fritz Studer AG has awarded its research prize, the “Fritz Studer Award“ for the sixth time. Applicants from several European countries submitted their work, with the winner of the CHF 10,000 prize announced as Dr-Ing. Mirko Theuer.
The Fritz Studer Award is aimed at graduates of European universities and technical colleges. The targets are creative ideas and solutions in the area of the machine tool industry. “The goal behind the research award is, on the one hand, feasible solutions and ideas which strengthen the innovative power of the machine tool industry and, on the other, our desire to use this award to promote young scientists and technicians,” states Dr-Ing. Frank Fiebelkorn, Head of Research and Technology Fritz Studer AG.
The work sent in for this Award should specifically focus on the following topics:
Innovative machine concepts or components for machine tools for precision machining
Alternative materials in mechanical engineering
Simulation models for the dynamic and thermal behavior of machine tools
Control and sensor concepts for machine tools
New or advanced manufacturing techniques, especially in hard fine machining, such as grinding, hard turning, etc.
STUDER received several studies, master theses and dissertations, with an expert jury evaluating the work. The jury consists of Prof. Dr. Konrad Wegener, Institute for Machine Tools and Production at the ETH Zurich, Dr.-Ing. Hans-Werner Hoffmeister, head of Production Engineering at the Institute of Machine Tools and Production Technology of the TU Braunschweig and Dr.-Ing. Frank Fiebelkorn, head of Research and Technology at Fritz Studer AG. Criteria for the evaluation of the works were for example the feasibility to imple-ment the idea in the machine tool industry, the innovation and quality of the idea, the scientific content and form, as well as the correctness of the statements and results.
This time, the Studer Award 2020 went to Dr. Mirko Theuer from the Institute for Production Engineering and Machine Tools at Leibniz University Hannover. He convinced the entire jury with his study entitled “Continuous generating grinding of cutting tools.“ His work deals with the development of a new type of tool grinding method for the manufacture of cutting tools such as drills, mills or saw blades, for example.
Award winner Mirko Theuer has transferred theoretical and practical knowledge in the continuous generating grinding of gearwheels to the conditions of a 5-axis tool grinding machine, which is normally used for machining such cutting tools. To do this he developed a mathematical model, which serves to design the worm geometry (grinding wheel) for the required cutting tool geometries. The practical tests for continuous generating grinding showed that a wide variety of tool ge-ometries can be designed. The newly developed generating grinding process enables the flutes and peripheral cutting edges of a cutting tool to be produced simultaneously with a sin-gle grinding worm, so that it is no longer necessary to use several grinding tools in succession. The new method increases the productivity of the overall process, as well as the manufactur-ing quality. The improved manufacturing quality also shows benefits for the subsequent use of a milling tool. In comparison to conventional reference mills, a 15% higher service life was established. Dr Theuer presented many other advantages of the new method in detail in his dissertation. The very high degree of innovation of this topic is also underscored by a patent application for the developed method.
“It is a fantastic feeling to receive the Fritz Studer Award. I have always hoped that my dissertation could make an innovative contribution to production technology. This award is therefore a special honour for me,“ enthused Dr.-Ing. Mirko Theuer on receiving the Fritz Studer Award and the prize money in the amount of CHF 10,000.
One more year until GrindTec 2022
15-18 March 2022 Augsburg Fairground
In March 2018, The last big meeting of the grinding technology industry took place at the Augsburg Trade Fair Centre in March 2018. GrindTec 2018 was also the most successful to date since its premiere twenty years earlier. With 19,100 top-class trade visitors from around 50 countries, the leading international trade fair for grinding technology achieved its third best attendance.To date, around 40,000 international industry experts are part of the network and the trend continues to rise. GrindTec 2020 was well on its way to continuing this success story for the industry.
It is only one more year until the industry will meet at the world’s leading trade fair for grinding technology, GrindTec, in Augsburg. But things will start getting exciting as early as Easter, because from April 6, GrindTec will regularly keep the industry regularly updated with the latest advantages of the next event.
Well-known partners but also new supporters have already positioned themselves in order to make their ideas, suggestions, special products and services for the industry available to the visitors via these channels.
GrindTec project manager Joachim Kalsdorf comments: “When it became clear that there would be no GrindTec in 2020 due to the pandemic, we started to bundle all our forces and ideas in order to be able to offer our visitors real added value in the waiting time until GrindTec 2022. We are pleased to be able to start our program already after Easter.“
In recent years, GrindTec has established itself as the most successful meeting for international grinding technology. In 2022, it will finally once again offer the urgently needed platform for the presentation of innovations, for the initiation of new contacts and for the cultivation of existing business connections. In the past, GrindTec has always been regarded as a source of impetus for the industry economy and all the more hopes are now resting on the signal effect expected from this first major meeting of grinding technology.
Significant advantages for exhibitors until June 30
GrindTec organiser AFAG is offering a whole range of benefits to companies that register by June 30, 2020 at the latest. In addition to an early bird rate for stand rental, these exhibitors are guaranteed a refund of the stand rental paid in the event that the trade fair is cancelled due to the pandemic. Regular conditions will then apply from July 1. This new two-tier pricing model will also be continued in the future.
Free customer invitations for the first time
For many companies, the invitation of customers devours a not inconsiderable part of the trade fair budget. With GrindTec 2022, this aspect will also change: Exhibitors can invite as many of their customers as they wish and they will receive the guest tickets free of charge.
The registration phase has begun
The first registrations have already been received by the project management, and discussions have been going on for weeks with numerous companies. The clear tenor: participation in GrindTec 2022 is not up for discussion for the large majority of the companies which had registered for 2020. The planning of the halls will begin in June 2021, the current participation documents will be offered on the homepage of Grindtec 2022: https://www.grindtec.de/aussteller/.
For further information, contact:
Tel: 0049 821 589 82143
Master Abrasives now a 3M approved specialist belt converter
As a long-standing key partner of 3M™ Abrasives Division, Master Abrasives has been appointed as an approved specialist converter for 3M market-leading materials into belts. High-quality 3M abrasive materials will be converted by Master Abrasives’ experienced production team at their 3M approved Daventry conversion facility. Custom belt sizes will be manufactured in just 5 days, supported by their professional customer service.
In order to be approved as a specialist converter of 3M products, Master Abrasives’ conversion facility was thoroughly assessed by 3M. Manufacturing processes were carefully reviewed, with a particular focus on the quality of the belt joints, to ensure that they could meet the exceptional high quality and standards required by 3M. The team has successfully passed this 3M qualification process and have received written approval from 3M. The sales and marketing teams are also receiving additional training to fully support 3M belt customers in line with the company’s goal to provide “solutions for industry.“
Andy Wright, Master Abrasives’ business development and national sales manager, comments, “We are proud to have met the exacting requirements needed to be a 3M converter and the recognition this gives to the high manufacturing standards at our Daventry conversion facility. Our team is prepared and are eager to support customers in identifying the optimum finishing solutions from the range of 3M’s top-performance materials. We now have the capability to offer market-leading 3M material with quick lead times all supported by the high levels of customers service that you expect from Master Abrasives.“
Belt processes are suitable for automating as is already the case in many types of engineered castings applications. It’s when automation meets high performance abrasives that the best value is realised from such an investment. Through Master, customers can access robotics and automation expertise from 3M.
Master Abrasives offers the full range of 3M coated abrasive and non-woven materials, from Cubitron™ II 984F material, to Scotch-brite™ surface conditioning belts and through to Trizact™ materials such as 237AA. Trials and product selection are supported by Master Abrasives’ office-based customer service team as well as the technical sales team that can provide more hands-on application advice by visiting the customer’s site where current government guidelines allow.
Master Abrasives has been long-serving UK distributors for 3M products and this development strengthens the partnership further. Contact Master Abrasives’ team for advice on application requirements and trials of 3M belts and products.
Master Abrasives is an independently owned company providing solutions for industry with a complete range of abrasives, power tools, tool services and machinery and equipment. The Daventry-based company has built an enviable reputation for quality and service that is as strong today as it was 50 years ago. The well-known trademark of ‘Master’ represents the high-quality product range and services offered by the company worldwide.
Since being founded as an abrasive company in 1902, 3M has become one of the world’s most trusted brands with 88,000 employees worldwide and operations in 70 countries. 3M offers a full line of abrasives to assist with metalworking applications from construction to maintenance. It keeps manufacturers on the cutting edge of competitiveness with innovative solutions that add efficiency, productivity and high performance to industrial abrasive operations.
Okuma Web Seminar: 1.5 hours of innovative grinding tools Tuesday 13th April
In cooperation with Saint-Gobain Abrasives / Norton
Okuma Europe GmbH’s first digital customer event in 2020 aroused a great amount of interest and the company is therefore now extending invitations to another web seminar with guest speakers which will take place on Tuesday, 13 April 2021. This web seminar, held in English and lasting 1.5 hours, will be dedicated to grinding technology, from the structure of the grinding wheels to process design right up to troubleshooting. Dr. Stefan Bohr of Saint-Gobain Abrasives / Norton will also be there.
“Let’s talk about Okuma Grinders“
Andreas Lemaire, product manager for grinders at Okuma Europe, will start things off at 10 am. He will introduce the manufacturer’s grinder product range and highlight the special features of each machine, as well as explaining how Okuma is continuously increasing the performance of grinding processes to meet market requirements and attain top precision.
Dr Stefan Bohr, director Application Engineering and OEM Management at Saint-Gobain Abrasives Europe, will then provide a complete overview of grinding technology. Among other things, he will answer how grinding wheels are constructed, how important correct dressing and suitable cooling lubrication are, what effects the process parameters have, and how fast and effective troubleshooting can be achieved.
At the end, there will also be the opportunity to ask questions and discuss the best way to optimise processes and maximise performance.
Free registration for the Okuma web seminar is available now at https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_PRQGuSHXQg6400mLvzZSrA.
Okuma Europe GmbH is the European-based sales and service affiliation of Okuma Corporation, a world leader in CNC (computer numeric control) machine tools, founded in 1898 in Nagoya, Japan. Okuma is the industry’s only single-source provider, manufacturing the CNC machine, drive, motor, encoder, spindle and CNC control. Okuma’s innovative and reliable technology, paired with comprehensive, localised service protection, allows users to run continuously with confidence, maximising profitability. Along with its industry-leading distribution network, Okuma facilitates quality, productivity and efficiency, empowering the customer and enabling competitive advantage in todays demanding manufacturing environment. For more information, visit www.okuma.eu.
Leader provides the drive to improve productivity with Tecnologie FRB
Established in Italy in the early 1960s, Tecnologie FRB designs and manufactures live centres and face drivers for turning, gear cutting, and grinding applications. The company has built an enviable global reputation in this sector, and its comprehensive product ranges are now available in the UK and Eire from workholding and ancillary manufacturing product specialist, Leader Chuck International.
Products started with the FRB patented 65, 80 and 85 live centre series with axial load distribution, and continuous research and development has resulted in the more recent series of 2000, 2006 for high-speed turning, and 2008 for hard turning. With high quality steel integral shafts available with or without carbide tips, interchangeable inserts and cone shaped heads means Tecnologie FRB’s live centres offer a tangible solution to manufacturing industries’ requirements.
A complete range of revolving live centres is available, equipped with morse tapers in different sizes, both with standard and special features to fulfil most requirements.
The company’s constant quest for innovation has seen it excel in a wide range of mechanical processing, from conventional and CNC turning and gear cutting to the more demanding cylindrical grinding and tooth grinding applications.
Live centres for grinding are in the 92 series and include the models for pipe grinding and the dead centre series for hard metal applications. For gear cutting the 82 series live centres provide axial and radial load with roller bearings.
A comprehensive range of face drivers for turning, grinding and gear cutting applications is also offered, with FRB having developed its first model back in 1965. “The range of face drivers can fit any workpiece holder from 5 mm to over 300 mm diameter,” explains Leader Chucks MD Mark Jones. From the classic spring-operated system, right up to the most advanced hydraulically powered system. FRB patented balancing and holding system, which is completely mechanical and technologically state-of-the-art, always guarantees absolute reliability, constant repeatability of results and unparalleled holding capacity.”
Thanks to the introduction of face drivers, turning and grinding processes have undergone a number of innovative improvements that have resulted in shorter cycle times for many workshops. The driver acts directly on the workpiece so the cutting tool or abrasive wheel has increased access to the whole part. With none of the raw material being held in a chuck or similar device it is often possible to finish parts in one hit, minimising any potential datum errors from repositioning for second operations and so on.
Master Abrasives appointed key supplier for 3M precision products
A long-standing partner of 3M, Master Abrasives has been appointed as a key UK supplier for 3M precision abrasives.
3M, the science-based technology company, has appointed Master Abrasives as main Authorised Distributor. This will make Master Abrasives the prime supplier for hi-tech products with the latest technology from both the 3M and Master® brands.
3M conventional and super abrasives products will be offered, from grinding wheels with revolutionary precision shaped grain (PSG) to diamond finishing films. These PSG wheels are known in industry for their unique ceramic aluminium oxide grain proven to increase efficiency and productivity where precision matters most, like in the gear, powertrain and turbine industries.
Ian Meredith, applications engineering manager at Master Abrasives, comments: “We’re known for providing solutions to customer applications. For example, to provide grinding wheels that cut cooler, faster and longer, we have developed precision products such as our Master SAWPRO™ grinding wheels for circular saw manufacture and re-sharpening. 3M is also known for developing innovative products that improve productivity, like its durable PSG bonded products. So, our reinforced partnership with 3M is an excellent result for both companies and will help our offering go from strength to strength.”
As a key 3M bonded supplier, Master Abrasives is set up to offer high levels of customer service to support the range. Looking after day-to-day queries will be Customer Service team leader, Kelly Warrington, who has a lot of experience in precision bonded products. On the technical side, Ian Meredith will provide more in-depth product support, while the sales team will help customers in identifying optimum solutions from 3M’s bonded abrasives.
The sales and marketing teams at Master Abrasives are also receiving additional training to fully support 3M bonded customers in line with the company’s goal to provide “solutions for industry.“
Contact Master Abrasives’ team for advice on application requirements and trials of 3M products or for product literature.
Altus enters into a new partnership with two market leading equipment manufacturers
Altus, a leading supplier of capital equipment in the UK and Ireland, is pleased to announce new partnerships in 2021 with Heller Industries, the market leader in reflow oven technology and Asscon, innovators in vapour phase reflow technology, joining the supplier portfolio.
As electronic products continue to become smaller, more advanced and complex in construction, soldering performance and thermal consistency in production are more of a challenge. The addition of Heller Industries and Asscon will strengthen Altus’ impressive portfolio of equipment for the electronics industry and provide customers with technology to ensure PCBA manufacturing can run efficiently with the best soldering performance across their applications.
“As leaders and innovators in SMD convection and vapour phase reflow systems, we are extremely pleased to have been selected by Heller Industries and Asscon to support both their current installations with our engineering services and new equipment evaluations in the UK,” says Altus CEO Joe Booth.
“It is very important that we partner with forward-thinking companies who can provide our customers with the very best solutions for their needs, both Heller Industries and Asscon do just that. The added benefit of both suppliers is the breadth of their ranges, they both offer systems from NPI volume through to high volume and commercials that mirror the level automation.
“Asscon vapour phase reflow systems have been designed for highly flexible soldering of complex PCBA assemblies, an area that will only continue to grow in our region. The innovative equipment offers several advantages during the manufacture of electronics including the consistency and penetration of heat across the most complex of PCBAs in the soldering process thanks to Galden.
“Soldering electronic components to PCBs requires high temperatures. Lead-free soldering makes the process even more difficult as it requires extremely high temperatures and shorter reflow times. Asscon’s vapour phase reflow technology ensures the PCB and components are exposed to the lowest possible maximum temperatures required for accurate soldering, therefore, there is no overheating of the assemblies. Asscon’s systems feature cutting edge technology with their variable temperature gradient control in saturated vapour. These systems provide process reliability and repeatability and will ensure the soldering process is completed efficiently.
“An important benefit of Heller Industries’ technology to the UK market are their broad range heating zone configurations. These systems also support customers from entry level NPI volumes, through to the fastest throughput needed in automotive environments both with and without vacuum. Electronics’ manufacturers are seeking a high-performance oven at positive NPV and with Heller’s designed range, there is a system for all environments and budgets. In our view the Heller range packs the most performance available into each pound spent.
“We are looking forward to introducing our UK customer base to the Heller Industries and Asscon range of products during 2021.”
To download the new Altus brochure and view the equipment from Heller Industries and Asscon, visit www.altusgroup.co.uk.
The Altus Group was formed in 2001 to support the UK and Irish market for Surface Mount Technology, capital equipment for every process, peripheral equipment, spares and consumables and most importantly excellent service support.
The Altus Group product line has evolved over the years with carefully selected suppliers who offer ‘best in class’ products at cost effective prices, from world leading brands.
The Altus Team has a network of highly skilled technical sales specialists, applications and service engineers, providing local support across the UK and Ireland.
In 2005 sister company Danutek was formed with offices in Hungary and Romania to service the needs of local customers and multi-national companies with manufacturing facilities in the Central and Eastern European marketplace.
MecWash AVD commissioned for Nightingale hospital supplier
Duncan Riches, stores manager at BNOS Meditech, with the AVD at Meditech’s production facility in Halstead, Essex
MecWash has announced that it has supported the healthcare industry during the coronavirus pandemic by supplying BNOS Meditech with a new AVD ultrasonic washer.
North Essex-based medical equipment specialists Meditech supplied medical oxygen equipment to the Nightingale hospitals during the peak of the pandemic and turned to MecWash for its cleaning requirements, following a dramatic increase in demand caused by COVID-19.
The medical equipment specialist markedly increased production of medical gas regulators, flow meters and resuscitators throughout 2020, and the requirement to upscale its cleaning capabilities resulted in the purchase and commissioning of a new MecWash AVD machine.
Stores manager at Meditech, Duncan Riches says: “It has been an extremely busy year production-wise for our complete range of products. At the busiest time we saw an increase in business of around two years’ worth of orders in the space of 10 days and our existing ultrasonic washer wouldn’t cope with the demand. Our new MecWash machine takes a huge quantity of parts compared to our last one.”
The exacting requirements of cleanliness for parts in the healthcare industry meant Meditech turned to MecWash for a machine to aid removal of machining swarf and oils from the production process.
Duncan Riches comments: “If the parts aren’t cleaned properly, there may be remnants of swarf from the production process. Given the items we produce are for resuscitators and oxygen regulators, the last thing we need is contamination of the oxygen supply. The cleaning quality of the MecWash machine gives us full confidence that everything we produce is cleaned to the highest of standards.”
MecWash has a long history of supplying companies within healthcare and the production of healthcare devices, both in the UK and overseas.
MecWash managing director, John Pattison enthuses: “We’re delighted to have played a part in supporting the healthcare industry during an incredibly challenging year. Immaculate cleaning of parts is crucial in medical applications, and MecWash has an excellent reputation for facilitating this, having previously supplied machines to clean items ranging from knee replacement and other orthopaedic implants, to parts for dental systems.” Established in 1993, MecWash Systems Ltd specialises in the design and manufacture of a complete range of aqueous parts cleaning and degreasing systems for metal and plastic engineering components. Its capabilities include laboratory analysis of complex component cleaning issues and specifying or developing specialist detergents, plus the ability to design special processes and parts washers for particularly difficult cleaning challenges.
MecWash parts washers are used in the aerospace, automotive, defence, general engineering and medical industries. It specialises in achieving high cleanliness standards for components with intricate geometries, difficult substrates or tenacious contaminants. Its parts washers support the full range of engineering processes, including machined castings, forgings, turned parts, pressings, extrusions and mouldings.
For more information about MecWash product ranges, contact:
KLINGELNBERG honours 21 employees for long-term service
KLINGELNBERG employees celebrating service anniversaries © KLINGELNBERG
The tradition of honouring Klingelnberg employees for their many years of service continued as always in 2020. The service anniversary awards took place in small groups, with management expressing its thanks to each employee. The official ceremony, which normally takes place at the beginning of the year, will be held at a later date.
In total, the Klingelnberg management honoured twelve employees for their 25 years of service and five employees for their 40 years of service to the company. Another four honorees were even able to look back on 50 years of at the company.
“We are extremely proud to be able to present no less than four awards for over 50 years of service to the company. Such long-term loyalty is not something we can take for granted in this day and age,” says Martin Boelter, COO of the KLINGELNBERG Group.
Christoph Küster, CFO of the KLINGELNBERG Group, adds: “A big thank-you to all our colleagues for their commitment and dedication over the years. With their technical expertise, our employees have played a substantial role in making us a leading company in the gear industry. At the same time, the broad range of professional fields at our company shows just how much combined know-how there is in mechanical engineering.”
In 2020, Klingelnberg addressed the big trends, including Industry 4.0, automation and electric drive concepts. New developments and advancements in particular machine and software components attest to Klingelnberg’s proven innovative strength as a system supplier that knows how to set standards with new technologies, ultra-efficient production processes and Industry 4.0-capable complete solutions.
Already a winner of the prestigious Best of Industry Award 2018 for its Cyberphysical Production System in the Industry 4.0 category, Klingelnberg succeeded again this year in winning over trade journal MM Maschinenmarkt’s jury of experts for the Best of Industry Award 2020. There was an online reader vote, which accounted for 50 percent of the judging process, before the jury selected the winner. Only select prize-winning industrial products were eligible for the nomination. Klingelnberg was among the lucky winners, receiving accolades in the MeasuringTechnology category for its Complete Measurement in a Single Stage – Done-in-One solution.
In addition, due to the large number of cancelled exhibitions in 2020, Klingelnberg took the initiative of launching its own WebSeminar series. Experts gave talks on a broad range of topics in the areas of measuring technology, cylindrical gears, and bevel gears. There was tremendous interest in the 60-minute live sessions, providing Klingelnberg the opportunity to welcome participants from all over the world.
Founded in 1863, the machine manufacturing firm Klingelnberg is one of the leading companies in the gear industry. Thanks to numerous innovations in the areas of calculation, production, and measuring technology, Klingelnberg considers itself a leader in this industry. With its acquisition of Höfler Maschinenbau GmbH’s core business in 2012, Klingelnberg added machines for machining cylindrical gears to its range of products, reinforcing its position as an integrated systems provider.
Headquartered in Zurich, the machine manufacturing firm currently develops and manufactures at its sites in Zurich, Hückeswagen and Ettlingen. The company also maintains a presence with sales and service offices and numerous marketing agents all over the world. Klingelnberg solutions are used in the automotive, commercial vehicle, and aviation industries, as well as in shipbuilding, the wind power industry, and the general transmission manufacturing industry. Applicationsrange from vehicle drives, aircraft turbine engines and cement mill gear units to drive systems for ships and oil rigs.
With over 200 patent grants, the company continuously demonstrates its capacity for innovation. Above and beyond this, its 14001 certification and participation in the VDMA’s Blue Competence initiative give credence to the company’s sustainable, environmentally sound business practices.
Tel: 0049 2192 81470
TYROLIT acquires BIBIELLE S.p.A
At the end of July 2020, the TYROLIT Group acquired Bibielle S.p.A., a leading manufacturer of high quality three-dimensional abrasive material, closing the product gap in surface conditioning.
As a leading provider of grinding and dressing tools, TYROLIT already offered a comprehensive portfolio of grinding solutions for many industries. Now, with the integration of the highly specialised Bibielle assortment, TYROLIT is able to meet all grinding, polishing, finishing and surface conditioning needs, down to the most niche customer requirements.
The basic raw material fibre is produced in-house and is used in countless non-woven (fleece) applications as well as in surface conditioning materials. This keeps the supply chain compact and short and also makes for great strategic growth potential outside of traditional target industries.
A wide range of products for finishing, masking and satin finishing, combined with high tear resistance, provides customers with the means for the best finish wherever a perfect surface is required. This includes, but is not limited to, design objects, surgical instruments, aircraft engines and turbine components, vanes, metal parts for boats, tanks and processing tools for chemicals and food, cutlery and jewellery.
Last year, the TYROLIT POWER assortment was further extended with D105 REMOVAL strips. The D105 REMOVAL strips consist of electroplated diamonds on a polyethylene backing stabilised by natural brushes. With these new rougher strips, it is possible to remove more material faster and still follow the surface.
The smooth transition of Bibielle S.p.A into the TYROLIT Group ensures that no know-how is lost and resources and insights are pooled to create an even stronger market position. Both TYROLIT and Bibielle customers will profit from the acquisition through the creation of a one-stop shop and a widened sales network.
The experts are working closely together to realise the huge potential for growth by making use of many synergies, especially in the area of research and development.
TYROLIT is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of grinding and dressing tools, as well as a system provider for the construction industry. Headquartered in Schwaz, Austria, the family-owned business combines the strengths of being a part of the dynamic Swarovski Group with over a century’s worth of individual corporate and technological experience.